A review on the recent advances in the biology and aquaculture technology of Holothuria scabra

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Junus S
Kwong P.J
Khoo G


The highly valued sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is currently listed as endangered (EN) species in the IUCN Red List due to overfishing in most of its native locations, spurring the development of H. scabra aquaculture to ensure sustainability of the industry and species in the wild. This review presents a summary on the biology of Holothuria scabra and recent advancements of its aquaculture technology. The life cycle, morphology and internal anatomy of H. scabra are discussed. Recent findings on the reproductive behavior and mechanism of the population are reviewed together with the possible factors that influence gamete maturation and spawning events. This review also covers the notable recent advances on H. scabra aquaculture technology such as the studies on broodstock diet which indicated bacteria and carbonate minerals to be the main diets; the favorable polyculture results of H. scabra juveniles with red tilapia and Kappaphycus striatum; and the discovery and subsequent patent of H. scabra oocyte maturation inducing substance prepared from sea urchin spawns.

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