Effect of tobacco on periodontal health of adult population of Lucknow city

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Dr Pallavi Singh, Dr Shitanshu Malhotra, Dr Manu Narayan



Introduction: The use of tobacco is a significant global cause of death and a risk factor for human health that can be reduced. In adults all over the world, periodontal disease is quite prevalent, especially in its mild and moderate forms, and it has a number of detrimental health repercussions. Tobacco is a major risk factor affecting the periodontium. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the effect of tobacco either in smoking, chewing form or a combination on periodontal disease parameters of adults in Lucknow. Materials and methods:  A cross sectional study was conducted on 600 subjects, 200 smoking tobacco users, 200 chewing tobacco users and 200 combinations. Informed consent of all participants was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study. A single examiner conducted the examination, who was priorly calibrated for recording of all indices and bone loss measurements. Clinical parameters to evaluate severity of periodontal disease included Oral hygiene Index - simplified, Gingival Index, Community periodontal Index of treatment needs and Clinical Attachment loss. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's post hoc analysis was run to find significant differences between smokers, chewers and combination users for all parameters evaluated. Results:  Cigarette was the most commonly smoked tobacco while Khaini the most commonly chewed tobacco. Gingival index was  noted majorly in combination group (1.8925 + .12354), followed by chewers and smokers which was statistically significant at p=0.000. The highest mean score for CPI was noted in the combination group with a mean of 2.6150 + 1.12834. Smokers had a mean CAL  of 1.3150 + .59797, chewers had 1.4300 + .64590 and combination habit users had 1.4800 + .67964 . Periodontitis was noted in 24.5% of the smokers, 39.5% of chewing tobacco users and 50.5% in combination group Thus, it can be noted in combination group. An overall prevalence of 41.5% was observed for periodontitis. Conclusion:  Tobacco consumption is associated with periodontal disease parameters. The authors strongly recommend a prospective cohort study of tobacco habits and its relation with periodontal disease in future research.


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Dr Pallavi Singh, Dr Shitanshu Malhotra, Dr Manu Narayan