PERIODONTAL VACCINES: ARTILLARY TO CONQUER MICROBES
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The periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of tooth-supporting tissues. Its initial form, gingivitis which often remains symptomless, can progress into periodontitis leading to bad breath, oral discomfort and tooth loss. Its polymicrobial etiology is one of the major reasons for tooth loss. Main pathogens involved are gram negative anaerobic bacteria which include Porphyromomas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Present treatment options available only helps in arresting the disease to progress. It can neither cure the disease completely nor stop its recurrence. The dental plaque bacteria only starts the disease, it is the host specific inflammatory response which acts as main driven factor for disease progression. Hence main aim should be to alter the host specific response as well as to control the bacteria to progress.
Vaccines may act as potent adjunct to mechanical debridement for the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease. The polymicrobial nature of periodontitis and its immune-pathogenic complexity hinders the development of periodontal vaccines. A successful periodontal vaccine must provide protective immunity in the oral cavity.