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Urolithiasis is a afflication characterized by the formation of urinary calculi in the urological system. Urolithiasis, also known as nephrolithiasis,is a frequently encountered condition in emergency room settings.The ailment results in concretion of the genitourinary system. It raises the risk of getting ESRD. Oversaturation,crystallization, crystal enlargement, accumulation with in tubular structures processes contribute to the creation of stones. Urolithiasis is a inticrate, multifactorial afflication impacted by both endogenous (like age, gender, andgenetic transmission ) and exogenous (like geographic location, weather pattern, diet, micronutrient conentration andhydration status) factors. A kidney stone manifests clinically as pyrexia, queasiness, emesis and intense pain originating from the side of the abdomenpropagating to the lower back.In individuals with severe symptoms, the distress is often described as sharp or piercing, and there may be an elevated heart rate accompanied by the presence or absence of blood in the urine. Some claim that the trio of symptoms for urinary or kidney stones include pyrexia, emesis, and sharp flank discomfort. Therefore, in an acute setting, pain reliever is administered in the presence or absence of anti-nausea medication to prevent emesis. Intravenous fluids are administered carefully. The ideal diagnostic imaging technique is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). When urinary stones are less than 5 mm in size, they typically wash out on their own without any assistance. However, when intervention is necessary, it is either done voluntarily or as quickly as feasible. Surgical intervention is required for the management of kidney stones, and the choice of surgical approach depends on factors such as the dimensions and site of the stone within the kidney or ureter. The surgical procedure is tailored to address the specific dimensions and site of the calculi , ensuring effective removal or fragmentation.