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Melanins are black phenolic pigment which is produced by most of the organisms in nature. This pigment mainly provides protection from short wave radiation there by helping the organism to survive. The deficiency of melanin can lead to many dreadful diseases, which makes the pigment so important for the organism. Melanins differ in their structure as well as color based on the precursor molecules involved in biosynthesis. In animals eumelanin and pheomelanin are the predominant ones, while in bacteria pyomelanin and in fungi DHN-melanin been the most common melanin subtype. The pigment is widely extracted using acid precipitation but the procedures vary slightly depending on the source of the tissue. Extracted melanins could be used in wide variety of applications from medical to environmental which could be developed into future sustainable commercial applications.