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The rice gall midge is a destructive insect pest of rice. It causes a great loss in the yield of rice. The symptoms of damage caused by gall midge include the feeding of maggot at the base of shoot and the formation of “onion leaf” or “silver shoot”, these are white hollow tube gall formation caused by the larvae. Panicles could not be produced by the infested tillers. Many different gall midge biotypes or populations were being observed. Some of the efforts of depressing the insect populations include forecasting of insect occurrence, controlling by insecticides, cultural practice, controlling biologically, and the use of gall midge resistant rice varieties. Molecular markers are being used for analysing the diversity of rice gall midge diversity and genes which are resistant to rice gall midge were being identified.