Main Article Content
Fish welfare necessitates a well-managed program with constant attention to detail. The best way to ensure optimum fish health is to raise them in a healthy environment with good nutrition and qualified high water, isolation from infectious agents, and new intelligent fish farming methods. In this study, we reviewed vita vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. There are numerous industrial vaccines against infectious bacterial and viral diseases of fish to be used in aquaculture, which we discussed importance once. Water quality parameters are the critical subject in danger identification for the welfare risk assessment of numerous aquaculture operations; thus, aquaponic structures are not distinct from aquaculture. Fish raised in aquaponic systems require appropriate water-high-quality conditions, suggesting that parameters including dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and pH have to be inside desirable species-specific limits considered best value of these parameters. Appropriate nutrition in animal manufacturing systems is vital to the economical manufacturing of a healthy, best-quality product. In fish farming (aquaculture), nutrients are crucial because feed usually represents 50 percent of the variable production cost, so in this study, we discussed the most important ingredients such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Smart fish farming is a new scientific field to optimize resource efficiency and promote sustainable development in aquaculture. We revise how to use this field in fish farming to estimate fish size or biomass, feeding decision-making, and predicting water quality.