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A frenum is a triangle shaped mucous membrane fold that attaches the lip and the cheek to the gingiva, the alveolar mucosa and the underlying periosteum. The gingival health may get compromised if the frenum is attached too closely to the gingival margin either due to muscle pull or due to hinderance in the plaque control. The maxillary frenum may present aesthetic problems or compromise the orthodontic result in the midline diastema cases, thus causing a recurrence after the treatment. Frenectomy is performed to manage such an aberrant frenum.
This article is a compilation of a concise overview related to frenum primarily focussing on the frenal attachments, their association with various syndromes, indications, contraindications, advantages and the disadvantages of various techniques of frenectomy such as Miller’s technique, Z-plasty, V-Y plasty modified frenectomy technique, frenectomy by using electrocautery and LASERS.